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Proportional representation systems for Canada

An Introduction to Proportional Representation Systems for Canada

Proportional representation (PR) is not one system. It is a principle that says the percentage of seats a party has in the legislature should reflect the percentage of people who voted for that party. If a party gets 40% of the vote, they should get about 40% of the seats. Most of the serious problems with first past the post would be solved or alleviated with PR.

How would proportional representation work in Canada?

QUICK LINK: Read more about Proportional Ranked Choice Voting (also called Single Transferable Vote)
QUICK LINK: Read more about Mixed Member Proportional (MMP)
QUICK LINK: Read more about Rural-Urban Proportional
QUICK LINK: Read more about Open List PR

Made-in-Canada Proportional Representation Models

Proportional systems can be designed in different ways. Fair Vote Canada believes any proposals for PR in Canada should be “made-for-Canada” proposals that retain a strong element of local and regional representation, while ensuring that representatives are elected by the voters and personally accountable to them. These criteria have led Fair Vote Canada to recommend regionally-based models in which voters personally elect all candidates. We do not support any PR system of pure national lists like Israel’s.

All models of proportional representation that have been put forward for Canada feature:

  • Proportional results (30% of the vote = about 30% of the seats)
  • Local representation
  • Regional representation
  • More voter choice
  • Personal election of representatives and accountability to voters.

With all models of proportional representation for Canada:

  • Almost every vote will count to define the makeup of the legislature.
  • Almost every voter will help elect a representative who shares their values.
  • All regions will have representation in both government and as part of the opposition.
  • A single party will no longer be able to attain a majority government with just 40% of the vote.
  • Cooperation and compromise will become the norm.

Mixed Member Proportional (MMP)

Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) as envisaged for Canada would involve the creation of top-up regions normally including from 8 to 16 representatives. About 60% of these representatives would be elected as they are now, using first-past-the-post in single-member ridings. This would free up about 40% of the available seats to be allocated as top-ups to ensure proportionality overall in each region. You vote for a regional candidate. In the transition from our current system to MMP, existing single member ridings would be made larger to make room for the top-up seats and avoid having to increase the number of seats. Citizens wishing to contact their representative would have a choice of contacting their local representative or one of the regional representatives.

MMP is used in Germany, New Zealand and Scotland.

Click here for more about Mixed Member Proportional (MMP)

Proportional Ranked Choice Voting (also called Single Transferable Vote)

Proportional ranked choice voting allows voters to mark their choices 1, 2, 3 etc. instead of a single X AND provides more than one MP per riding. That’s how it delivers proportional results in Parliament. 

Proportional ranked choice voting is used in Ireland, some states/territories in Australia, and was used provincially for decades to elect the MLAs in urban ridings in Alberta and Manitoba.

Click here to learn more about the Proportional Ranked Choice Voting

Rural-Urban Proportional

Rural-Urban Proportional combines features of both multi-member and top-up systems, and is designed to accommodate the specifics of Canada’s varied geography. The aim of Rural-Urban Proportional is to avoid creating exceedingly large multi-member ridings in sparsely-populated parts of the country. The number of seats per riding would be reduced in such areas, which could include a certain number of single-member ridings if necessary. To ensure a high level of proportionality despite this feature, the system would include a small number of top-up seats at the regional level. Citizens wishing to contact their representative could choose one from the party of their choice or one closer to home.

Similar models are used in Iceland, Norway and Denmark.

Click here to learn more about Rural-Urban Proportional

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