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  • This topic has 22 replies, 4 voices, and was last updated 3 weeks, 4 days ago by Alan E. Dunne.
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  • #25906
    2Jenn
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    #25910
    George
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    Interesting paper. I did not read through the whole thing, but one section did catch my eye in particular about referendums, especially since it seems nowadays throughout Canada anytime a Political Party doesn’t really want to do something, but wants to appear as though they want to do it so that they can win votes, they just say, “let the people decide in a referendum!”

    In the passage below the author asserts that while the referendum process works in Switzerland, it may not transfer well to other societies without it becoming more ingrained into our everyday expected lives similar to regularly scheduled general elections.

    It also makes the case that one referendum defeat is not the end of an issue, but potentially just the start (women’s suffrage). This might also be played out if Britain has a second Brexit referendum.

    A particular feature of Switzerland is the strong importance of the referendum; this feature may not easily be transferred to other deeply divided societies coming out of civil war. Usually, Swiss citizens vote four times a year on a great variety of topics at the federal, cantonal, and communal levels. The referendum is, of course, a majoritarian devise, which contrasts with the power sharing institutions. It helps to break deadlocks in the power sharing institutions. It is also an instrument to empower minorities. When in a major constitutional revision in 1874, the referendum for parliamentary bills was introduced, it gave to the Catholic Conservatives a weapon to block federal legislature. A well-known example is their blockage of a federal school office. When later in the 19th century, the popular initiative was introduced, this gave even more power to minorities. With so much power to the people, is there not the danger that the entire political system is blocked? Here, one has to consider that referenda and initiatives are not one-shot events. If a bill of parliament is rejected in a referendum this is not the end of the political game. Parliament may revise the bill based on the critique expressed during the referendum campaign, and if the necessary signatures are collected a new referendum takes place. With regard to popular initiatives, the same logic holds; if an initiative is rejected, the supporters of the initiative may modify the text and submit it to another popular vote. Using referenda and initiative in this way, gives flexibility to the system. When they lose, supporters of a referendum or an initiative get second and sometimes even third and fourth chances. Female suffrage was only introduced after several failures in referenda. Using referendum and initiative for more than a hundred years led to great familiarity with these two instruments and helped to overcome the deep divisions between Catholic Conservatives and Free Democrats. It also helped to overcome other conflicts, in particular among German, French and Italian speakers and between rural and urban regions. Referendum and popular initiative are so much embedded in Swiss political culture that they hardly can be transferred to other countries. In this sense, we consider the lessons from Switzerland as quite limited. To be sure, power sharing institutions and a culture of deliberation seem to be necessary conditions to successfully get out of a civil war. But they may not be sufficient conditions in the sense of not being enough participatory. To involve ordinary citizens much more in the political decision process, one needs a full-fledged referendum, which requires a very long practice to become a functional part of a political system.

    #25938
    2Jenn
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    Thanks,George! And thanks so much for giving us a bite-sized bit since I too didn’t read the entirety.

    #27784
    Alan E. Dunne
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    10 key takeaways about public opinion in Europe 30 years after the fall of communism

    See Finding #10, re “divisiveness”: The Greens in MMP Germany, two parties in regional party-list Sweden, and three in ultimate-party-domination-through-PR (supposedly) the Netherlands, are approved of by a majority of people in those countries, the only 6 so approved out of 59, though it seems unlikely that any of them get a majority of votes.

    #28127
    Alan E. Dunne
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    file:///C:/Users/ALANE~1.DUN/AppData/Local/Temp/IPTI-Report-Preventing-Violence-through-Inclusion-3.pdf

    This report does not have electoral systems or any specific political institutions in its Table of Contents but it was returned in Google Scholar for “electoral systems” along with other search terms and I think might be of general interest.

    I realize excessive inclusiveness is a main thing many fear from a more proportional systems, and something some Fair Vote Canada members want to modify reform proposals to prevent.

    #28551
    Alan E. Dunne
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    https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1136706 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.371.7626&rep=rep1&type=pdf

    These two studies of an SMP system, referred to in the book Poor Economics are said to show, in the first, that representatives who came from the most common caste in their constituency were the most corrupt, and in the second, about an attempt to reduce voting by caste, that only a quarter of people (said they) were going to vote by caste anyway. But with single-member constituencies and nontransferable votes, such a minority can be dominant.

    #29052
    Alan E. Dunne
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    https://ejpr.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1475-6765.12118

    This article gives theoretical and general arguments, and supports them with the examples of the United Kingdom in “the mid 1980s” and New Zealand from 1984 to 1993, that in some circumstances there is less accountability of governments to angered voters in a two=party, SMP system than in a more proportional one where voters can increase the strength of a party whose support a big party needs to govern so it can “keep them honest”.

    #29311
    Alan E. Dunne
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    https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10602-019-09283-5

    This study says that majoritarian systems lead to more and less fragmented public Research & Development spending because that is a “bounded public good” which governments can use to influence election outcomes.

    Google Scholar lists no citations of it yet but 101 “related articles”.

    #29508
    Alan E. Dunne
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    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00344893.2019.1624601

    This concerns what kinds of institution, particularly electoral system, most enable parties to pursue power without sacrificing their principles. I don’t know the conclusions drawn.

    #30274
    Alan E. Dunne
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    #31183
    Alan E. Dunne
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    https://academic.oup.com/pa/article/73/3/477/5368143 is mostly about recent decades but deals interestingly with common fears about PR

    #31419
    Alan E. Dunne
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    But while the polls constitute an important step in consolidating electoral democracy in a country long associated with dictatorship, a first-past-the-post electoral system and a concentration of seats in the central Burman regions mean that minorities will again have limited representation.

    Crisis Group anticipating Myanmar’s November 8 elections.

    #31538
    Alan E. Dunne
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    https://academic.oup.com/ssjj/article/17/1/3/1649592

    Of electoral system change (to MMP) and the selection of legislators for cabinets.

    #31599
    Alan E. Dunne
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    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0261379417300689 is supposed to show how STV in two American cities reduced the cohesion of parties that sought majorities.

    #31423
    Alan E. Dunne
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    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2009.0046.x is theory on a fragile empirical base, but addresses the sometimes high-profile issue of the influence of interest groups. It does not seem to have been systematically followed up but its citations include items of interest, such as https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/683073 and http://summit.sfu.ca/item/20306.

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